These references should guide interested researchers in finding research materials on child labor. Because Web-sites change frequently, two excellent starting points for additional information are the International Labour Office and the United States Department of Labor, Bureau of International Affairs.


    The health impact of child labor on health is discussed in Public Health Reports, volume 120, number 6, November-December 2005.
    Found at:

    International Labour Office, "The burden of gold. Child labour in small-scale mines and quarries."
    Found at:

    International Labour Office, Bitter Harvest: Child Labor in Agriculture. ILO (Geneva, 2002).
    Found at:

    Human Rights Watch provides an excellent discussion of migrant workers in the United States in its publication Fingers to the Bone: United States Failure to Protect Migrant Farmworkers. Human Rights Watch (New York, 2000).
    Found at:

    Human Rights Watch, Easy Targets: Violence Against Children Worldwide.
    Found at:

    Anti-Slavery Society, "Child labor in the carpet industry."
    Found at:

Human Rights:
    A copy of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
    Found at:
    Another site that includes the declaration in multiple languages is

    International Labor Convention 182 on the worst forms of work.
    Found at:

    An excellent source for documents on human rights law is found at the University of Minnesota's Human Rights Library.
    Documents are available in many languages and may be found at:

Organizations of interest:
    Information on carpets made without child labor may be found at RugMark International:

    South Asian Coalition to End Child Servitude. Information on SACCS is available at

    Minnesota Advocates for Human has wide range of human rights programs. Of particular interest is the Sankhu Village School project. I helped start this school in 2000. The school provides free education and meals to poor children in a small village outside of Kathmandu, Nepal. We welcome your tax deductible support.
    Information is available at:

    International Initiative to End Child Labor (IIECL):

Statistical data and reports on children:
    Although it is difficult to find information detailing the number of children working in different industries, the United States Department of Labor does an excellent job describing many forms of child labor in manufacturing. The department has published a series of reports entitled By the Sweat and Toil of Children.
    The reports are found at:

    UNICEF, State of the World's Children: Excluded and Invisible. UNICEF publishes a report each year called "State of the World's Children." These reports are an excellent source of global data on the health and educational status of children.
    These may be found at:

    International Labour Office, International Program for the Elimination of Child Labor, Every Child Counts: New Global Estimates on Child Labor. ILO (Geneva, 2002). This document offers a wide range of statistical data on working children.
    Found at:

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All images are owned and copyright protected by David L. Parker, MD, MPH.